Smoking Abstinence Impairs Time Estimation Accuracy in Cigarette Smokers

 By Laura Cousino Klein, PhD, Elizabeth J. Corwin, PhD, and Michele M. Stine, Med . 2003

Where: “Time estimates were converted into an accuracy score, called "theta"(ie,θ), using the duration judgment ratio of subjective to objective duration (eg, Block and colleagues 2000, Block and colleagues 1999). Theta was calculated using the standard formula of: θ= time estimated by participant / actual (ie, clocked) time passed (45 seconds), such that a θ=1 indicates a perfect time estimate in matching clock duration, whereas θ>1 indicates an overestimate of time and θ<1 indicates that the participant perceived a slower time passage relative to actual time”.