Phenomena of Guy Madison

Madison Guy, professor:

1. Multiple temporal levels for facilitating temporal organization and integration by the human brain 

http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:279912

Titel: An auditory illusion of infinite tempo change based on multiple temporal levels
Abstract:

Humans and a few select insect and reptile species synchronise inter-individual behaviour without any time lag by predicting the time of future events rather than reacting to them. This is evident in music performance, dance, and drill. Although repetition of equal time intervals (i.e. isochrony) is the central principle for such prediction, this simple information is used in a flexible and complex way that accommodates both multiples, subdivisions, and gradual changes of intervals. The scope of this flexibility remains largely uncharted, and the underlying mechanisms are a matter for speculation. Here I report an auditory illusion that highlights some aspects of this behaviour and that provides a powerful tool for its future study. A sound pattern is described that affords multiple alternative and concurrent rates of recurrence (temporal levels). An algorithm that systematically controls time intervals and the relative loudness among these levels creates an illusion that the perceived rate speeds up or slows down infinitely. Human participants synchronised hand movements with their perceived rate of events, and exhibited a change in their movement rate that was several times larger than the physical change in the sound pattern. The illusion demonstrates the duality between the external signal and the internal predictive process, such that people's tendency to follow their own subjective pulse overrides the overall properties of the stimulus pattern. Furthermore, accurate synchronisation with sounds separated by more than 8 s demonstrate that multiple temporal levels are employed for facilitating temporal organisation and integration by the human brain. A number of applications of the illusion and the stimulus pattern are suggested.

Комментарий:

Установленной G.Madison нейрофизиологической множественности временных уровней организации в работе мозга соответствует своя организация на одном из психических уровней. Феномен вписывается в продуктивное научное видение в психологии, проведенное Львом Ительсоном (Itelson L.B.).  Условное разделение психического отражения мира, своего тела человеком по уровням психического отражения,  а именно уровни ощущений, эмоций, восприятий, представлений, уровни значений, понятийный уровень, уровень теорий, уровень формального мышления. Можно исследовать субъективное время на уровне ощущений и особенно висцеральной чувствительности. Можно рассматривать  субъективные времена в целом, так как человек един, не смотря на условное разделение по уровням.  Человеческая психика собирает информацию со всех уровней психического отражения мира и себя в мире, в том числе и ориентируется во временных отношениях с миром на разных уровнях психического отражения. Соревнование уровней, конечно, имеет место, что то преобладает, с какого уровня быстрее поступает информация, та информация и обрабатывается.  У одних в основе может лежать не висцеральная чувствительность ощущений, а эмоциональная, основанная на страхе, у других привычка на уровне восприятий и они не могут ориентироваться без часов, третьи ориентируются на производственные процессы, в которых участвуют и у них время представляется согласно скорости конвеера, у четвертых принцип «время- деньги» (это уровень значений) ………..и так далее до уровня аксиоматического мышления в высшей математике Гильберта, где время – одна из координат четырехмерного мира.

2. DRIFT AND TIMING VARIABILITY IN ISOCHRONOUS INTERVAL PRODUCTION WITH AND WITHOUT MUSIC IMAGERY

Guy Madison, Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Box 1225, SE-751 42 UPPSALA, Sweden

Method. Participants in a tapping experiment were later recruited to imagine listening to recordings of familiar songs (selected for being stable in tempo). They were asked to play along with specified multiples or subdivisions of the beat (corresponding to the IRIs in the tapping exp.: 0.5, 0.8, 1.1, and 1.5 s) and to maintain a stable tempo.

Participants in a tapping experiment were later recruited to imagine listening to recordings of familiar songs (selected for being stable in tempo). They were asked to play along with specified multiples or subdivisions of the beat (corresponding to the IRIs in the tapping exp.: 0.5, 0.8, 1.1, and 1.5 s) and to maintain a stable tempo.

Results. The coefficient of variation (SD/M) and the local fluctuations in tempo were not affected by music imagery, whereas long-term (monotonous) drift was larger during imagery for 1.1 and 1.5 s IRI. Although autocorrelation functions were obscured by non-stationarity for IRIs above 0.8 s, there was a clear effect of imagery for 0.5 and 0.8 s: While the first two lags were typically moderately positive or negative (» ± .1) for the tapping data, the imagery data demonstrated periodicity for various higher lags.

The coefficient of variation (SD/M) and the local fluctuations in tempo were not affected by music imagery, whereas long-term (monotonous) drift was larger during imagery for 1.1 and 1.5 s IRI. Although autocorrelation functions were obscured by non-stationarity for IRIs above 0.8 s, there was a clear effect of imagery for 0.5 and 0.8 s: While the first two lags were typically moderately positive or negative (» ± .1) for the tapping data, the imagery data demonstrated periodicity for various higher lags.

Conclusions. A musical context does not seem to improve simple timing performance,

A musical context does not seem to improve simple timing performance,  although it does affect the variability patterns. A comparison with subdivision in tapping experiments is the first step to explain these findings.
Participants in a tapping experiment were later recruited to imagine listening to recordings of familiar songs (selected for being stable in tempo). They were asked to play along with specified multiples or subdivisions of the beat (corresponding to the IRIs in the tapping exp.: 0.5, 0.8, 1.1, and 1.5 s) and to maintain a stable tempo. The coefficient of variation (SD/M) and the local fluctuations in tempo were not affected by music imagery, whereas long-term (monotonous) drift was larger during imagery for 1.1 and 1.5 s IRI. Although autocorrelation functions were obscured by non-stationarity for IRIs above 0.8 s, there was a clear effect of imagery for 0.5 and 0.8 s: While the first two lags were typically moderately positive or negative (» ± .1) for the tapping data, the imagery data demonstrated periodicity for various higher lags.A musical context does not seem to improve simple timing performance, 
 
 
 
 
3. Интеллект и опыт не вляют на точность отмеривания равных интервалов. Авторы Ullén, F. Mosing, M., Madison, G. 
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology установили это в работе "Associations between motor timing, music practice, and intelligence studied in a large sample of twins".http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A792601&dswid=-779  

Абстракт. Music performance depends critically on precise processing of time. A common model behavior in studies of motor timing is isochronous serial interval production (ISIP), that is, hand/finger movements with a regular beat. ISIP accuracy is related to both music practice and intelligence. Here we present a study of these associations in a large twin cohort, demonstrating that the effects of music practice and intelligence on motor timing are additive, with no significant multiplicative (interaction) effect. Furthermore, the association between music practice and motor timing was analyzed with the use of a co-twin control design using intrapair differences. These analyses revealed that the phenotypic association disappeared when all genetic and common environmental factors were controlled. This suggests that the observed association may not reflect a causal effect of music practice on ISIP performance but rather reflect common influences (e.g., genetic effects) on both outcomes. The relevance of these findings for models of practice and expert performance is discussed.